The results by a linear regression model unmatched method and a linear mixed effects model assuming random effects for matching sets matched method were quite similar in terms of regression coefficient and P value associated with the case—control status, which supports our finding that case—control data matched on a few demographic variables can be properly analyzed by unmatched methods.
To conclude, it has been known that matched methods, e. Matched methods additionally are robust to the matching distortion.
Unmatched methods, e. When the study design involves other complex features such as censoring and repeated measures, matching on a few demographic variables can be ignored if the confounding effect is not very large. Standard methods such as Cox regression and generalized estimating equation then can be readily applied. Unmatched methods also are appealing for saving computational time when the same analysis needs to be repeated extensively, e. In addition to matching, other factors also need to be considered, such as study design and practical feasibility when choosing a statistical method.
All of the authors contributed significantly to study design, result interpretation, and manuscript preparation. The data simulations were conducted by C-LK.
The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest. Estimation of multiple relative risk functions in matched case-control studies. Am J Epidemiol 4 — Costanza MC.
Prev Med 24 5 — Matching in epidemiologic studies: validity and efficiency considerations. Biometrics 37 2 — Miettinen OS. Estimation of relative risk from individually matched series. Biometrics 26 1 — Selection of controls in case-control studies. Types of controls. Am J Epidemiol 9 — McKinlay SM. Pair-matching—a reappraisal of a popular technique. Biometrics 33 4 — Thomas DC, Greenland S. The relative efficiencies of matched and independent sample designs for case-control studies.
There are two common misconceptions about case-control studies: that matching in itself eliminates (controls) confounding by the matching. The analysis of matched data requires specific statistical methods. criteria we identified 37 matched case-control studies for detailed analysis.
J Chronic Dis 36 10 — Cost and efficiency in the choice of matched and unmatched case-control study designs. Am J Epidemiol 5 — Woodward M. Epidemiology: Study Design and Data Analysis. Google Scholar. Problems due to small samples and sparse data in conditional logistic regression analysis. Am J Epidemiol 5 —9. Applied Logistic Regression.
Hoboken, NJ: Wiley Pearce N. Analysis of matched case-control studies. BMJ i Modern Epidemiology, Thoroughly Rev and Updated. Matched case-control studies: a review of reported statistical methodology. Clin Epidemiol — Association between pre-diagnostic circulating vitamin D concentration and risk of colorectal cancer in European populations: a nested case-control study. BMJ b Austin PC. An introduction to propensity score methods for reducing the effects of confounding in observational studies.
Multivariate Behav Res 46 3 — Matching methods for selection of subjects for follow-up. Multivariate Behav Res 45 4 — Public Health The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author s and the copyright owner are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice.
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Introduction Matching is commonly used in case—control studies to adjust for confounding at the design stage. Table 2. Power of unconditional and conditional logistic regression models. Table 7. All Rights Reserved. A year-old woman was in excellent health until 2 weeks before admission, when she developed malaise, low-grade fever, cough, and generalized muscle pain.
Although she took aspirin, her symptoms became worse over the next several days, in particular increased muscle pain, which made it very difficult for her to rise from a chair. She then consulted her personal physician, who performed a thorough evaluation. On physical examination, she had mild, diffuse muscle tenderness and a mild, erythematous maculopapular rash over much of her body. Eosinophilia-myalgia syndrome EMS was diagnosed.
This newly recognized syndrome is characterized by incapacitating myalgias muscle pains , elevated eosinophil counts, and in some patients, arthralgias joint pains , skin thickening, hair loss, and interstitial lung disease. EMS was first recognized in October , when astute physicians determined that three people with unexplained myalgias and eosinophilia had consumed l -tryptophan, an essential amino acid available without prescription in drug and health food stores.
Prompt response by health departments quickly led to case—control studies, the results of which suggested that ingestion of l -tryptophan was the cause of EMS.
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For example, if a patient received a day supply of NSAID or acetaminophen, we would look to see if they had record of hospitalization for TMA within 45 days 1. Oxford Scholarship Online requires a subscription or purchase to access the full text of books within the service. Lou et al. Flow-chart of study participants was shown in Fig. As far as we know, there was no specific epidemiological study on the association between depressive symptoms during pregnancy in the general population and offspring CHD.
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